The science behind Genecorp

A simple saliva test taken at home, or anywhere for that matter!

Get your genetic assessment with just an easy saliva test, and a postbox, 3 weeks later, you’re genetically healthy!

Healthy Life

Science and DNA

We are all different, and a part of this difference is as a result of our genetic profile.

Genetically, there are the differences that we all see, such as eye and hair color, but there are also the differences we don’t see, how we metabolize nutrients for example, the way we deal with toxins, how well we react to different types of exercise – we all interact with the environment in our own unique way.

Genetically we are almost identical, but in each gene there are points of variation. The most common type of variation is a single base change at a particular position – this variation is called a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, or SNP for short (pronounced ‘snip’).

It is in the combination of these tiny differences that we define our individuality, who we are.

But genes are not the whole picture, they don’t work alone and they don’t determine everything about us.

Genes interact with our environment – and modifying the environment modifies our “phenotype” – the way we are (e.g. a fair skinned person will only suffer from sunburn if she/he stays in the sun too long).

Because we have some control over our environment (in our case exercise and nutrition choices) we therefore can work to create the best phenotype for our lifestyle.

At Genecorp we focus our work specifically on these two realms of genetic science, with the aim of helping our customers train, eat and feel their best.

Learn more about the genes

Power based training recommended. Good muscle growth expected from weight training and strength sports. Good muscle recovery. Ensure blood pressure is monitored during high intensity exercise. Effect increased in conjunction with AGT C-allele.

  • ACE
  • ADRB2
  • APOA2
  • ADRB2
  • FABP2
  • FTO
  • PPARG
  • ADRB3
  • TCF7L2
  • PPARA

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme

ACE

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme is a small enzyme that plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and electrolyte balance. Its activity leads to blood vessel constriction and increased blood pressure. The variation tested is the Insertion (I)/Deletion (D) variation in which a piece of DNA is either present or deleted from the gene. – the I allele is associated with lower ACE activity. This is the most researched gene in relation to sporting performance.

DD

Power based training recommended. Good muscle growth expected from weight training and strength sports. Good muscle recovery. Ensure blood pressure is monitored during high intensity exercise. Effect increased in conjunction with AGT C-allele.

The D variation may increase sensitivity to refined carbohydrates and lead to reduced insulin sensitivity, this effect is aggravated in overweight individuals. The negative effects of the D variant on insulin sensitivity may be ameliorated by regular exercise.

ID

Mixture of power and endurance based training recommended.

The D variation may increase sensitivity to refined carbohydrates and lead to reduced insulin sensitivity, this effect is aggravated in overweight individuals. The negative effects of the D variant on insulin sensitivity may be ameliorated by regular exercise.

II

Endurance sports and high repetition weight training programmes recommended. Carriers have an increased volume of slow twitch muscle fibres and have greater aerobic efficiency and VO2max.

The I allele is associated with lower ACE activity which is not associated with increased sensitivity to refined carbohydrates.

Adrenoceptor Beta 2

ADRB2 (Arg16Gly)

Beta(2)-adrenergic receptors are expressed throughout the body and serve as receptors for the natural stimulant hormones called catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine. The polymorphisms tested result in amino acid changes, which affect the activity of the receptor and alter the response to these hormones. Beta- adrenergic receptors are found in fat cells, liver and skeletal muscle where they are involved in fat mobilization, blood glucose levels and in vasodilation.

AG

A more moderate form of AA: an endurance-based combination with good increases in VO2max, but not as much as AA.

In studies, the Gly16 allele was associated with weight gain after dieting, especially when saturated fats are high. May benefit from higher intensity of exercise for fat loss.

GG

Likely to be less responsive to endurance training, although they may have a slightly quicker recovery from exercise.

In studies, the Gly16 allele was associated with weight gain after dieting, especially when saturated fats are high. May benefit from higher intensity of exercise for fat loss.

AA

Not associated with increased sensitivity to saturated fats.

Reports from studies include: Likely to respond well to endurance training, including good increases in VO2max. Good blood pressure responses to aerobic exercise. May have a slightly slower recovery from exercise.

Apolipoprotein A-II

APOA2

Apolipoprotein A-II is a component of HDL particles where it is the second most abundant protein – its exact function though is not yet known but it is associated with obesity risk and type of food intake. The SNP tested is in the promoter of the gene so may affect levels of the protein. Studies repeated in several ethnic groups showed that the genetic variation can affect BMI but only when saturated fat in the diet is high.

CC

In high saturated fat diets, BMI is reported to be significantly higher in CC homozygote individuals, indicating a heightened sensitivity to saturated fat.

CT

CT and TT genotypes are not associated with increased BMI in the presence of higher levels of saturated fat consumption.

TT

CT and TT genotypes are not associated with increased BMI in the presence of higher levels of saturated fat consumption.

Adrenoceptor Beta 2

ADRB2 (Gln27Glu)

Beta(2)-adrenergic receptors are expressed throughout the body and serve as receptors for the natural stimulant hormones called catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine. The polymorphisms tested result in amino acid changes, which affect the activity of the receptor and alter the response to these hormones. Beta- adrenergic receptors are found in fat cells, liver and skeletal muscle where they are involved in fat mobilization, blood glucose levels and in vasodilation.

CG

A more moderate form of CC: an endurance-based combination with moderate fat burning responses to exercise.

The presence of the Glu27 variant contributes to increased sensitivity to refined carbohydrates. The Glu27 allele is linked to increased fat accumulation especially visceral fat in women. May benefit from higher intensity of exercise for fat loss. Effects are more pronounced in Glu-Glu homozygotes.

GG

Contributes to a reduced response to endurance training. Associated with an increased sensitivity to refined carbohydrates, may benefit from reduction.

The presence of the Glu27 variant contributes to increased sensitivity to refined carbohydrates. The Glu27 allele is linked to increased fat accumulation especially visceral fat in women. May benefit from higher intensity of exercise for fat loss. Effects are more pronounced in Glu-Glu homozygotes.

CC

Contributes to positive response to endurance training, including good increases in VO2max. With regards to weight management, studies show increased fat oxidation with exercise.

This genotype is not associated with increased sensitivity to refined carbohydrates or fats.

Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2

FABP2

This protein is found only in cells of the small intestine, the main site for fat absorption and FABP2 is involved in the uptake and transport of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The polymorphism tested for causes an amino acid change from Alanine to Threonine at position 54 in the protein sequence and this version has a two-fold higher affinity for long-chain fatty acids. The Thr54 version is associated with increased fat oxidation and studies have shown that Thr54 may increase fat uptake in the small intestine – for example, it has been shown that after a fatty meal the levels of triglycerides in the blood are higher in Thr/Thr individuals. The Thr allele has also been linked to higher levels of total cholesterol & LDL cholesterol and lower levels HDL (so called “good” cholesterol).

GG

This genotype is not associated with increased sensitivity to saturated fats or refined carbohydrates.

GA

A single copy of the Thr allele associated with a moderately increased sensitivity to saturated fats. Also contributes to increased refined carb sensitivity.

AA

Two copies of the Thr allele in the FABP2 is associated with significantly increased sensitivity to saturated fats. Also contributes to increased refined carb sensitivity.

Fat Mass And Obesity Associated

FTO

FTO is a protein that is associated with fat mass and obesity in both adults and children. Its function has not been completely determined yet. It is an alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent deoxygenase enzyme that repairs alkylated DNA and RNA by oxidative demethylation. Activity appears to be affected by eating and fasting. The enzyme is particularly active in areas of the brain that are associated with eating behaviour

AA

AA is associated with significantly increased sensitivity to fats. Also may benefit from increased levels and intensity of physical activity.

AT

AT is associated with moderately increased sensitivity to fats. Also may benefit from increased levels and intensity of physical activity.

TT

TT is not associated with increased sensitivity to fats. Does not increase exercise intensity level requirement.

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma

PPARG

This long named protein is a receptor found in the cell nucleus – PPARG is important in the formation and development of adipocytes (fat cells). As a nuclear receptor when certain molecules bind to it (e.g. prostaglandins) it can itself bind directly to DNA and influence the expression of specific genes. In this way it regulates fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. The SNP tested changes the amino acid at position 12 in the protein from Proline to Alanine, and the Ala version has a reduced affinity for target genes, this means it binds to them less strongly and has a reduced effect on their expression. The Ala form seems to have a protective effect against higher BMI and also reduced insulin sensitivity, but only under certain conditions.

CC

Individuals with the Pro/Pro genotype are likely to be more sensitive to negative effects of fats and refined carbohydrates in the diet and to a sedentary lifestyle. It has also been reported that higher proportions of PUFA and/or MUFA (poly & mono- unsaturated fats) in the diet compared to saturated fats is linked to a lower BMI

CG

ProAla is not associated with increased sensitivity to refined carbohydrates or saturated fats.

GG

AlaAla is not associated with increased sensitivity to refined carbohydrates or saturated fats.

Adrenoceptor Beta 3

ADRB3

Beta (3)-adrenergic receptors are located mainly in adipose tissue and they play a key role in energy metabolism being involved in the regulation of lipolysis (fat breakdown) and thermogenesis (process of heat generation using fat for energy). The polymorphism tested results in an amino acid change from tryptophan (Trp) to Arginine (Arg) and the Arg version is associated with lower fat breakdown activity. Some studies have shown that the Arg allele is associated with a high BMI and that Arg allele carriers have more difficulty losing weight under standard weight loss diet & exercise protocols. The Arg allele has also been shown in studies to be linked to more rapid weight gain following dieting

CC

The Agr64 variant is associated with reduced lipolysis (fat cell breakdown) and is associated with higher BMI with increased energy intake especially for fats. This variant is also associated with a reduced sensitivity to exercise and more intense exercise may be needed to have the same effect as typical intensity for carriers of the Trp64 variant. Effects more pronounced in CC (Arg-Arg) homozygotes

CT

The Agr64 variant is associated with reduced lipolysis (fat cell breakdown) and is associated with higher BMI with increased energy intake especially for fats. This variant is also associated with a reduced sensitivity to exercise and more intense exercise may be needed to have the same effect as typical intensity for carriers of the Trp64 variant. Effects more pronounced in CC (Arg-Arg) homozygotes

TT

Associated with normal fat sensitivity and exercise.

Transcription Factor 7-Like 2

TCF7L2

TCF7L2 is a transcription factor (a protein which binds to DNA and affects the expression of genes and the amount of various proteins produced) – it affects a variety of genes. It has not been fully characterised but the protein has been implicated in blood glucose homeostasis and the SNP tested affects insulin sensitivity. The polymorphism has also been shown to affect weight loss according to diet type with the TT homozygotes responding poorly to high fat/low carb diets. The T allele may also make weight loss harder with standard diet & exercise protocols and it is associated with increased weight gain after dieting. While the T allele, and in particular the TT genotype is linked to negative insulin/glucose balance the good news is that these effects can be neutralised by the correct diet, reducing weight if overweight and regular exercise.

CC

CC does not increase sensitivity to refined carbohydrates or saturated fats. Not associated with increased exercise indications.

CT

CT indicates a reduction in refined carbohydrates and an increase in fibre can be important in weight loss. One copy of the T allele is associated with a moderately increased fat sensitivity especially to saturated fats. Increased intensity exercise may be more beneficial.

TT

TT indicates a reduction in refined carbohydrates and an increase in fibre can be important in weight loss. TT is associated with significantly increased fat sensitivity especially to saturated fats. Increased intensity exercise may be more beneficial.

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha

PPARA

Regulates genes responsible for skeletal and heart muscle fatty acid oxidation and is a main regulator of energy metabolism.

GG

G allele is associated with endurance sports. May have higher levels of slow twitch muscle fibres. These carriers may increase fatty acid mobilisation with training.

GC

Associated with both power and endurance attributes.

CC

Associated with lower amounts of PPARA expression which may contribute to increases in response to power training. Greater susceptibility to high blood pressure, which should be monitored.

How we select the genes

1

Search

We search through all the published literature from many hundreds of scientific studies for candidate genes.

2

Sort

We then sort the candidate papers and rank according to applicable relevance, looking for a good sample size, a reputable journal and evidence of gene x environment interaction.

3

Establish

Our Scientific Advisory Board establish the scientific validity of the gene x environment interaction and its link to to personal fitness and nutrition utility.

4

Include

The board then present their findings to include in the Genecorp reports only once the evidence is clear regarding an easily modifiable gene x environment interaction with a positive outcome, and that this effect is shown in multiple studies.